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Hot Flashes in Menopause: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments

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Hot flashes are a common symptom experienced by menopausal and perimenopausal women. They cause a sudden feeling of heat, which is often accompanied by redness and sweating. Hot flashes can be uncomfortable and get in the way of everyday life, but there are ways to deal with them. Read on to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatments of hot flashes.

What Causes Hot Flashes?

Hot flashes are typically caused by hormonal changes due to menopause or perimenopause. As the body’s estrogen levels decline, the brain’s thermostat can become confused and think it’s overheating. This causes the body to release heat, resulting in a hot flash.


What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hot Flashes?

They are characterized by a sudden feeling of warmth, often accompanied by redness and sweating. They can last anywhere from 30 seconds to several minutes, and can be accompanied by feelings of anxiety or irritability.

Underlying Causes of Hot Flashes

Hormonal changes are the most common cause of hot flashes. During menopause, a woman’s body stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

As a result, her body temperature can fluctuate, causing hot flashes. Other causes include stress, anxiety, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or anemia.

Treatments for hot flashes can include hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle changes, and natural remedies such as herbal supplements.

Types of Hot Flashes

1. Power Surge: These are sudden, intense flashes that come on suddenly and last a few minutes. They are the most common type of hot flash.

2. Slow Burn: These flashes come on gradually and can last for several minutes. They tend to be less intense than power surges.

3. Night Sweats: Also known as “sleep disruption,” these are flashes that occur while sleeping and can cause sweating, chills, and other physical discomforts.

4. Internal Heat: This type of hot flash is experienced as a sensation of heat inside the body, rather than on the skin.

Stages of Menopause and Their Relation to Flashes

Stage 1: Perimenopause

Perimenopause is the period when the body transitions from its reproductive years to menopause. During this stage, estrogen levels begin to fluctuate, causing irregular menstrual cycles, changes in fertility and other physical and emotional symptoms. Flashes are one of the most common symptoms of perimenopause. They can be triggered by changes in hormones, stress, and changes in temperature.

Stage 2: Menopause

Menopause is the point in time when a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months. During menopause, estrogen levels decline and hot flashes can become more frequent and intense. Hot flashes can also last longer and occur more often during this stage. Other symptoms of menopause include night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood swings.

Stage 3: Postmenopause

Postmenopause is the period following menopause in which a woman has not had a menstrual period for more than 12 months. Flashes can still occur during this stage, but they usually become less frequent and less intense. Other symptoms of postmenopause include weight gain, fatigue, and insomnia.

Stage 4: Late Menopause

Late menopause is the period following postmenopause in which a woman has not had a menstrual period for more than 24 months. During this stage, hot flashes can still occur, but they are usually milder than during earlier stages of menopause. Other symptoms can include joint pain, thinning hair, and dry skin.

How Are Hot Flashes Treated?

There are several treatments available for them. These include hormone replacement therapy, natural remedies such as soy and vitamin E, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine and alcohol.

Vitamins against hot flashes

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a popular way to treat hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause in women.

HRT is the use of either estrogen or a combination of estrogen and progesterone hormones to replace the hormones lost during menopause.

HRT can be taken orally, transdermally (through the skin), or as a vaginal cream.

Common side effects of HRT include breast tenderness, bloating, and headaches.

Additionally, long-term use of HRT can increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, and breast cancer.

Antidepressants: Antidepressants are sometimes prescribed to help manage the symptoms of hot flashes.

Commonly prescribed antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).

Side effects of antidepressants include nausea, headaches, weight gain, and insomnia. Additionally, antidepressants can increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, especially in people under the age of 24.

Herbal Remedies: Herbal remedies, such as black cohosh, evening primrose oil, and ginseng, are sometimes used to reduce the severity and frequency of hot flashes.

While these remedies are generally considered safe, they can interact with certain medications and may cause side effects. Additionally, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy of herbal remedies in treating hot flashes.

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We can help you determine the best treatment plan for your individual needs.

In addition to the treatments discussed above, there are other strategies that can be used to help manage flashes.

For example, putting on clothes in layers can make it easier to control your body temperature when you experience a hot flash. Additionally, engaging in relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and yoga can help reduce the severity of flashes and may even prevent them.

Connection between Health Issues and Hot Flashes

Hot flashes are a common symptom of menopause and can be associated with other health conditions. Studies have shown that hot flashes can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis.

This is likely due to the decrease in estrogen levels associated with menopause, which can lead to an increase in the risk of these conditions. Additionally, long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to manage hot flashes can increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, and breast cancer.

Hot flashes can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Studies have shown that menopausal women who experience hot flashes are more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety than those who do not.

Additionally, hot flashes can interfere with sleep, leading to insomnia. Therefore, treating hot flashes and managing other symptoms of menopause is important for overall health and well-being.

Herbal Remedies for Hot Flashes

1. Black Cohosh: This herb has been used for centuries to treat flashes, night sweats and other menopausal symptoms.

2. Red Clover: This herb is believed to contain plant-based estrogen, which can help reduce flashes.

3. Sage: Drinking sage tea may help reduce flashes and night sweats.

4. Chasteberry: Chasteberry has been used to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms.

5. Wild Yam: Wild yam contains compounds that may help reduce hot flashes.

Lifestyle Changes to Consider

1. Exercise Regularly: Exercise can help reduce hot flashes by increasing circulation and promoting relaxation. Regular aerobic exercise, such as walking or running, can help reduce the intensity and frequency of hot flashes.

2. Avoid Triggers: Triggers can vary from person to person but may include alcohol, caffeine, spicy foods, hot drinks, and stress. Keeping a record of what activities lead to hot flashes and avoiding them can help alleviate symptoms.

3. Stay Cool: Wearing lightweight and loose-fitting clothing made of natural fibers such as cotton and linen can help to keep the body cool and reduce the intensity of hot flashes. Keeping the room temperature low and using a fan or air conditioner may also help.

4. Practice Relaxation Techniques: Stress is a known trigger for hot flashes, and relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, yoga, or meditation can help reduce stress and the intensity of hot flashes.

5. Try Herbal Remedies: Some herbal remedies, such as black cohosh, red clover, and evening primrose oil, have been used to help reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes. However, it is important to speak to a doctor before taking any herbal remedies.


Hot flashes are a common symptom experienced by menopausal and perimenopausal women. They are caused by hormonal changes, and can be uncomfortable and disruptive to daily life. There are ways to deal with hot flashes, such as hormone replacement therapy, natural remedies, and making changes to your lifestyle.

Talk to us to determine the best treatment plan for you.

It is also important to pay attention to your diet and lifestyle habits, as these can have an effect on the frequency and severity of them. Eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as limiting caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, can help reduce the number.

Regular exercise can also help reduce the frequency and severity of them.

Lastly, it’s important to talk to us if your hot flashes start to bother you a lot or start to get in the way of your daily life. We can help you deal with hot flashes better by giving you more advice and treatment options.


1. Healthline
2. WebMD

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About the Author

Dr. Jennifer Broad is a board-certified obstetrician and gynecologist who has been practicing in Newport Beach, California for over a decade. She received her medical degree from the University of California, San Francisco, and completed her residency training at the University of California, Irvine.

Dr. Broad is dedicated to providing personalized care to her patients and is committed to staying up-to-date with the latest medical advances in her field. She is a fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a member of the Orange County Medical Association.



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