Abnormal Pap Smear Tests: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Table of Contents

abnormal-pap-smear-test-cellsjpgFor women, the subject of abnormal Pap smears may be both worrying and perplexing. A Pap test can show anything from small changes in the cells of the cervix to precancerous or cancerous cells. It’s important for women to understand the differences, what they mean, and what to do about them.

A Pap smear, commonly known as a Pap test, is a screening test used to detect abnormal cells on the cervix of a woman, which is the opening to the uterus found at the top of the vagina.

A Pap smear is an important technique for early identification and prevention of cervical cancer, the fourth most frequent malignancy in women globally.

An abnormal test result can suggest the presence of abnormal or potentially precancerous cells on the cervix, and more testing and follow-up are usually required to determine the reason and appropriate therapy. A range of causes, including infections, hormone imbalances, and certain medical problems, can result in abnormal Pap smear results.

It is critical for women to follow prescribed Pap smear testing protocols and to share any concerns or queries with their healthcare professional.

A Pap Smear: What Is It?

A Pap test, sometimes referred to as a Pap smear, is a treatment used to check women for cervical cancer. Cells taken from the cervix are collected during the process and checked for alterations or anomalies. Cervical cancer can be found early, when it is most curable, thanks to the results of the Pap smear.

Types of abnormal smears

Types of Pap Smear Abnormalities

There are various varieties of abnormal Pap tests, such as:

Atypical Squamous Cells with Uncertain Relevance (ASC-US)

The phrase “abnormal cervical cells” (ASC-US) refers to cervical cells that are not obviously normal or abnormal. While it’s crucial to remember that this is not a cervical cancer diagnosis, it does suggest that additional testing is required to identify the reason for the abnormal cells.

Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion of Low Grade (LSIL)

LSIL is a word used to characterize aberrant cervical cells that are on the verge of developing into cancer but have not yet reached that stage. To make sure that the abnormal cells do not advance to a more critical stage, women with LSIL will likely need additional testing and close monitoring.

Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion of High Grade (HSIL)

The word “HSIL” is used to refer to aberrant cervical cells that are precancerous and could develop into cervical cancer if untreated. Usually, women with HSIL need more testing and medical care, like a biopsy or the excision of the abnormal cells.

Intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervical (CIN)

The word “CIN” refers to a precancerous condition of the cervix that is classified according to the intensity of abnormal cell proliferation. There are three levels of CIN, from mild (CIN 1) to severe (CIN 3). (severe). Usually, women with CIN need extra examinations and medical care, such as a biopsy or the excision of the abnormal cells.

Cervical Cancer that has Spread

Cervical cancer that has progressed into nearby tissues and beyond the cervix’s surface is referred to as invasive cervical cancer. This particular form of cervical cancer is regarded as advanced and needs to be treated right away to stop it from progressing.

Pap Smear Test Analyse

What to Do if Your Pap Smear Is Abnormal

It’s crucial to go by your healthcare provider’s advice for additional testing and treatment if your Pap smear results are abnormal. Additional Pap tests, colposcopies, biopsies, or the excision of the abnormal cells are examples of this.

Even if your Pap test came back abnormal, it’s important to keep getting regular tests for cervical cancer. Early identification of cervical cancer is essential since it is most curable in its early stages.

Cause of Abnormal Pap Smears

Abnormal Pap smears can be caused by a number of factors, including infections (such as HPV, herpes, or yeast infections), inflammation, pre-cancerous changes, or cancer.


Most of the time, abnormal Pap smears do not cause any symptoms. However, in some cases, women may experience vaginal discharge, pain, or bleeding.

Treatment Options

The treatment for an abnormal Pap smear will depend on the cause. If the cause is an infection, the doctor will prescribe medication to treat the infection.

If the cause is pre-cancerous or cancerous cells, the doctor may recommend further testing and/or treatment. This could involve a biopsy, colposcopy, or other medical procedures.

Frequently asked questions

Q: Does an abnormal Pap smear mean I have cancer?
A: Not necessarily. An abnormal Pap smear can be caused by a number of factors, including infections, inflammation, pre-cancerous changes, or cancer. Your doctor will need to perform further testing to determine the cause of the abnormal results.

Q: What happens if I have an abnormal Pap smear?
A: If you have an abnormal Pap smear, your doctor will likely recommend further testing and/or treatment. This could involve a biopsy, colposcopy, or other medical procedures.

Q: How often should I get a Pap smear?
A: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women aged 21 to 29 get a Pap smear every three years, while women aged 30 to 65 should get a Pap smear and HPV test every five years.


Even though abnormal Pap smear results can be hard to understand and scary, it is important for women to know the different kinds and what they mean. Most women who get an abnormal Pap test result can avoid getting cervical cancer if they get the right treatment right away.


    About the Author

    Dr. Jennifer Broad is a board-certified obstetrician and gynecologist who has been practicing in Newport Beach, California for over a decade. She received her medical degree from the University of California, San Francisco, and completed her residency training at the University of California, Irvine.

    Dr. Broad is dedicated to providing personalized care to her patients and is committed to staying up-to-date with the latest medical advances in her field. She is a fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a member of the Orange County Medical Association.



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